Window functions
Background
The window function is a special class of builtin functions. Similar to the aggregation function, it also does calculations on multiple input rows to get a single data value. The difference is that the window function processes the input data within a specific window, rather than using the "group by" method. The data in each window can be sorted and grouped using the over() clause. The window function computes a separate value for each row, rather than computing one value for each group. This flexibility allows users to add additional columns to the select clause and further filter the result set. The window function can only appear in the select list and the outermost position of a clause. It takes effect at the end of the query, that is, after the join
, where
, and group by
operations are performed. The window function is often used to analyze trends, calculate outliers, and perform bucketing analyses on largescale data.
Usage
Syntax
function(args) OVER(partition_by_clause order_by_clause [window_clause])
partition_by_clause ::= PARTITION BY expr [, expr ...]
order_by_clause ::= ORDER BY expr [ASC  DESC] [, expr [ASC  DESC] ...]
PARTITION BY clause
The Partition By clause is similar to Group By. It groups the input rows by one or more specified columns. Rows with the same value are grouped together.
ORDER BY clause
The Order By
clause is basically the same as the outer Order By
. It defines the order of the input rows. If Partition By
is specified, Order By
defines the order within each Partition grouping. The only difference is that Order By n
(n is a positive integer) in the OVER
clause is equivalent to no operation, whereas n
in the outer Order By
indicates sorting by the nth column.
Example:
This example shows adding an id column to the select list with values of 1, 2, 3, etc., sorted by the date_and_time
column in the events table.
SELECT row_number() OVER (ORDER BY date_and_time) AS id,
c1, c2, c3, c4
FROM events;
Window clause
The window clause is used to specify a range of rows for operations (the preceding and following rows based on the current row). It supports the following syntaxes: AVG(), COUNT(), FIRST_VALUE(), LAST_VALUE(), and SUM(). For MAX() and MIN(), the window clause can specify the start to UNBOUNDED PRECEDING
.
Syntax:
ROWS BETWEEN [ { m  UNBOUNDED } PRECEDING  CURRENT ROW] [ AND [CURRENT ROW  { UNBOUNDED  n } FOLLOWING] ]
Window function sample table
This section creates a sample table scores
. You can use this table to test many window functions below.
CREATE TABLE `scores` (
`id` int(11) NULL,
`name` varchar(11) NULL,
`subject` varchar(11) NULL,
`score` int(11) NULL
)
DISTRIBUTED BY HASH(`score`) BUCKETS 10;
INSERT INTO `scores` VALUES
(1, "lily", "math", NULL),
(1, "lily", "english", 100),
(1, "lily", "physics", 60),
(2, "tom", "math", 80),
(2, "tom", "english", 98),
(2, "tom", "physics", NULL),
(3, "jack", "math", 95),
(3, "jack", "english", NULL),
(3, "jack", "physics", 99),
(4, "amy", "math", 80),
(4, "amy", "english", 92),
(4, "amy", "physics", 99),
(5, "mike", "math", 70),
(5, "mike", "english", 85),
(5, "mike", "physics", 85),
(6, "amber", "math", 92),
(6, "amber", NULL, 90),
(6, "amber", "physics", 100);
Function examples
This section describes the window functions supported in StarRocks.
AVG()
Calculates the average value of a field in a given window. This function ignores NULL values.
Syntax:
AVG(expr) [OVER (*analytic_clause*)]
Examples:
The following example uses stock data as an example.
CREATE TABLE stock_ticker (
stock_symbol STRING,
closing_price DECIMAL(8,2),
closing_date DATETIME
)
DUPLICATE KEY(stock_symbol)
COMMENT "OLAP"
DISTRIBUTED BY HASH(closing_date);
INSERT INTO stock_ticker VALUES
("JDR", 12.86, "20141002 00:00:00"),
("JDR", 12.89, "20141003 00:00:00"),
("JDR", 12.94, "20141004 00:00:00"),
("JDR", 12.55, "20141005 00:00:00"),
("JDR", 14.03, "20141006 00:00:00"),
("JDR", 14.75, "20141007 00:00:00"),
("JDR", 13.98, "20141008 00:00:00")
;
Calculate the average closing price in the current row and each row before and after it.
select stock_symbol, closing_date, closing_price,
avg(closing_price)
over (partition by stock_symbol
order by closing_date
rows between 1 preceding and 1 following
) as moving_average
from stock_ticker;
Output:
+++++
 stock_symbol  closing_date  closing_price  moving_average 
+++++
 JDR  20141002 00:00:00  12.86  12.87500000 
 JDR  20141003 00:00:00  12.89  12.89666667 
 JDR  20141004 00:00:00  12.94  12.79333333 
 JDR  20141005 00:00:00  12.55  13.17333333 
 JDR  20141006 00:00:00  14.03  13.77666667 
 JDR  20141007 00:00:00  14.75  14.25333333 
 JDR  20141008 00:00:00  13.98  14.36500000 
+++++
For example, 12.87500000
in the first row is the average value of closing prices on "20141002" (12.86
), its previous day "20141001" (null), and its following day "20141003" (12.89
).
COUNT()
Calculates the total number of rows that meet the specified conditions in a give window.
Syntax:
COUNT(expr) [OVER (analytic_clause)]
Examples:
Count the occurrence of math scores that are greater than 90 from the current row to the first row in the math partition. This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *,
count(score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score
rows between unbounded preceding and current row
) as 'score_count'
from scores where subject in ('math') and score > 90;
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  score_count 
++++++
 6  amber  math  92  1 
 3  jack  math  95  2 
++++++
DENSE_RANK()
The DENSE_RANK() function is used to represent rankings. Unlike RANK(), DENSE_RANK() does not have vacant numbers. For example, if there are two 1s, the third number of DENSE_RANK() is still 2, whereas the third number of RANK() is 3.
Syntax:
DENSE_RANK() OVER(partition_by_clause order_by_clause)
Examples:
The following example shows the ranking of math scores (sorted in descending order). This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *,
dense_rank()
over (
partition by subject
order by score desc
) as `rank`
from scores where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  rank 
++++++
 3  jack  math  95  1 
 6  amber  math  92  2 
 2  tom  math  80  3 
 4  amy  math  80  3 
 5  mike  math  70  4 
 1  lily  math  NULL  5 
++++++
The result data has two rows whose score is 80. They all rank 3. The rank for the next score 70 is 4. This shows DENSE_RANK() does not have vacant numbers.
FIRST_VALUE()
FIRST_VALUE() returns the first value of the window range.
Syntax:
FIRST_VALUE(expr [IGNORE NULLS]) OVER(partition_by_clause order_by_clause [window_clause])
IGNORE NULLS
is supported from v2.5.0. It is used to determine whether NULL values of expr
are eliminated from the calculation. By default, NULL values are included, which means NULL is returned if the first value in the filtered result is NULL. If you specify IGNORE NULLS, the first nonnull value in the filtered result is returned. If all the values are NULL, NULL is returned even if you specify IGNORE NULLS.
Examples:
Return the first score
value for each member in each group (descending order), grouping by subject
. This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *,
first_value(score IGNORE NULLS)
over (
partition by subject
order by score desc
) as first
from scores;
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  first 
++++++
 1  lily  english  100  100 
 2  tom  english  98  100 
 4  amy  english  92  100 
 5  mike  english  85  100 
 3  jack  english  NULL  100 
 6  amber  physics  100  100 
 3  jack  physics  99  100 
 4  amy  physics  99  100 
 5  mike  physics  85  100 
 1  lily  physics  60  100 
 2  tom  physics  NULL  100 
 6  amber  NULL  90  90 
 3  jack  math  95  95 
 6  amber  math  92  95 
 2  tom  math  80  95 
 4  amy  math  80  95 
 5  mike  math  70  95 
 1  lily  math  NULL  95 
++++++
LAST_VALUE()
LAST_VALUE() returns the last value of the window range. It is the opposite of FIRST_VALUE().
Syntax:
LAST_VALUE(expr [IGNORE NULLS]) OVER(partition_by_clause order_by_clause [window_clause])
IGNORE NULLS
is supported from v2.5.0. It is used to determine whether NULL values of expr
are eliminated from the calculation. By default, NULL values are included, which means NULL is returned if the last value in the filtered result is NULL. If you specify IGNORE NULLS, the last nonnull value in the filtered result is returned. If all the values are NULL, NULL is returned even if you specify IGNORE NULLS.
By default, LAST_VALUE() calculates rows between unbounded preceding and current row
, which compares the current row with all its preceding rows. If you want to show only one value for each partition, use rows between unbounded preceding and unbounded following
after ORDER BY.
Examples:
Returns the last score
for each member in the group (descending order), grouping by subject
. This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *,
last_value(score IGNORE NULLS)
over (
partition by subject
order by score desc
rows between unbounded preceding and unbounded following
) as last
from scores;
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  last 
++++++
 1  lily  english  100  85 
 2  tom  english  98  85 
 4  amy  english  92  85 
 5  mike  english  85  85 
 3  jack  english  NULL  85 
 6  amber  physics  100  60 
 3  jack  physics  99  60 
 4  amy  physics  99  60 
 5  mike  physics  85  60 
 1  lily  physics  60  60 
 2  tom  physics  NULL  60 
 6  amber  NULL  90  90 
 3  jack  math  95  70 
 6  amber  math  92  70 
 2  tom  math  80  70 
 4  amy  math  80  70 
 5  mike  math  70  70 
 1  lily  math  NULL  70 
++++++
LAG()
Returns the value of the row that lags the current row by offset
rows. This function is often used to compare values between rows and filter data.
LAG()
can be used to query data of the following types:
 Numeric: TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT, LARGEINT, FLOAT, DOUBLE, DECIMAL
 String: CHAR, VARCHAR
 Date: DATE, DATETIME
 BITMAP and HLL are supported from StarRocks v2.5.
Syntax:
LAG(expr [IGNORE NULLS] [, offset[, default]])
OVER([<partition_by_clause>] [<order_by_clause>])
Parameters:
expr
: the field you want to compute.offset
: the offset. It must be a positive integer. If this parameter is not specified, 1 is the default.default
: the default value returned if no matching row is found. If this parameter is not specified, NULL is the default.default
supports any expression whose type is compatible withexpr
.IGNORE NULLS
is supported from v3.0. It is used to determine whether NULL values ofexpr
are included in the result. By default, NULL values are included whenoffset
rows are counted, which means NULL is returned if the value of the destination row is NULL. See Example 1. If you specify IGNORE NULLS, NULL values are ignored whenoffset
rows are counted and the system continues to search foroffset
nonnull values. Ifoffset
nonnull values cannot be found, NULL ordefault
(if specified) is returned. See Example 2.
Example 1: IGNORE NULLS is not specified
Create a table and insert values:
CREATE TABLE test_tbl (col_1 INT, col_2 INT)
DISTRIBUTED BY HASH(col_1);
INSERT INTO test_tbl VALUES
(1, NULL),
(2, 4),
(3, NULL),
(4, 2),
(5, NULL),
(6, 7),
(7, 6),
(8, 5),
(9, NULL),
(10, NULL);
Query data from this table, where offset
is 2, which means traversing the previous two rows; default
is 0, which means 0 is returned if no matching rows are found.
Output:
SELECT col_1, col_2, LAG(col_2,2,0) OVER (ORDER BY col_1)
FROM test_tbl ORDER BY col_1;
++++
 col_1  col_2  lag(col_2, 2, 0) OVER (ORDER BY col_1 ASC ) 
++++
 1  NULL  0 
 2  4  0 
 3  NULL  NULL 
 4  2  4 
 5  NULL  NULL 
 6  7  2 
 7  6  NULL 
 8  5  7 
 9  NULL  6 
 10  NULL  5 
++++
For the first two rows, no previous two rows exist and the default value 0 is returned.
For NULL in row 3, the value two rows backward is NULL and NULL is returned because NULL values are allowed.
Example 2: IGNORE NULLS is specified
Use the preceding table and parameter settings.
SELECT col_1, col_2, LAG(col_2 IGNORE NULLS,2,0) OVER (ORDER BY col_1)
FROM test_tbl ORDER BY col_1;
++++
 col_1  col_2  lag(col_2, 2, 0) OVER (ORDER BY col_1 ASC ) 
++++
 1  NULL  0 
 2  4  0 
 3  NULL  0 
 4  2  0 
 5  NULL  4 
 6  7  4 
 7  6  2 
 8  5  7 
 9  NULL  6 
 10  NULL  6 
++++
For rows 1 to 4, the system cannot find two nonNULL values for each of them in the previous rows and the default value 0 is returned.
For value 6 in row 7, the value two rows backward is NULL and NULL is ignored because IGNORE NULLS is specified. The system continues to search for nonnull values and 2 in row 4 is returned.
LEAD()
Returns the value of the row that leads the current row by offset
rows. This function is often used to compare values between rows and filter data.
Data types that can be queried by LEAD()
are the same as those supported by LAG().
Syntax:
LEAD(expr [IGNORE NULLS] [, offset[, default]])
OVER([<partition_by_clause>] [<order_by_clause>])
Parameters:
expr
: the field you want to compute.offset
: the offset. It must be a positive integer. If this parameter is not specified, 1 is the default.default
: the default value returned if no matching row is found. If this parameter is not specified, NULL is the default.default
supports any expression whose type is compatible withexpr
.IGNORE NULLS
is supported from v3.0. It is used to determine whether NULL values ofexpr
are included in the result. By default, NULL values are included whenoffset
rows are counted, which means NULL is returned if the value of the destination row is NULL. See Example 1. If you specify IGNORE NULLS, NULL values are ignored whenoffset
rows are counted and the system continues to search foroffset
nonnull values. Ifoffset
nonnull values cannot be found, NULL ordefault
(if specified) is returned. See Example 2.
Example 1: IGNORE NULLS is not specified
Create a table and insert values:
CREATE TABLE test_tbl (col_1 INT, col_2 INT)
DISTRIBUTED BY HASH(col_1);
INSERT INTO test_tbl VALUES
(1, NULL),
(2, 4),
(3, NULL),
(4, 2),
(5, NULL),
(6, 7),
(7, 6),
(8, 5),
(9, NULL),
(10, NULL);
Query data from this table, where offset
is 2, which means traversing the subsequent two rows; default
is 0, which means 0 is returned if no matching rows are found.
Output:
SELECT col_1, col_2, LEAD(col_2,2,0) OVER (ORDER BY col_1)
FROM test_tbl ORDER BY col_1;
++++
 col_1  col_2  lead(col_2, 2, 0) OVER (ORDER BY col_1 ASC ) 
++++
 1  NULL  NULL 
 2  4  2 
 3  NULL  NULL 
 4  2  7 
 5  NULL  6 
 6  7  5 
 7  6  NULL 
 8  5  NULL 
 9  NULL  0 
 10  NULL  0 
++++
For the first row, the value two rows forward is NULL and NULL is returned because NULL values are allowed.
For the last two rows, no subsequent two rows exist and the default value 0 is returned.
Example 2: IGNORE NULLS is specified
Use the preceding table and parameter settings.
SELECT col_1, col_2, LEAD(col_2 IGNORE NULLS,2,0) OVER (ORDER BY col_1)
FROM test_tbl ORDER BY col_1;
++++
 col_1  col_2  lead(col_2, 2, 0) OVER (ORDER BY col_1 ASC ) 
++++
 1  NULL  2 
 2  4  7 
 3  NULL  7 
 4  2  6 
 5  NULL  6 
 6  7  5 
 7  6  0 
 8  5  0 
 9  NULL  0 
 10  NULL  0 
++++
For rows 7 to 10, the system cannot find two nonnull values in the subsequent rows and the default value 0 is returned.
For the first row, the value two rows forward is NULL and NULL is ignored because IGNORE NULLS is specified. The system continues to search for the second nonnull value and 2 in row 4 is returned.
MAX()
Returns the maximum value of the specified rows in the current window.
Syntax:
MAX(expr) [OVER (analytic_clause)]
Examples:
Calculate the maximum value of rows from the first row to the row after the current row. This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *,
max(scores)
over (
partition by subject
order by score
rows between unbounded preceding and 1 following
) as max
from scores
where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  max 
++++++
 1  lily  math  NULL  70 
 5  mike  math  70  80 
 2  tom  math  80  80 
 4  amy  math  80  92 
 6  amber  math  92  95 
 3  jack  math  95  95 
++++++
The following example calculates the maximum score among all rows for the math
subject.
select *,
max(score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score
rows between unbounded preceding and unbounded following
) as max
from scores
where subject in ('math');
From StarRocks 2.4 onwards, you can specify the row range as rows between n preceding and n following
, which means you can capture n
rows before the current row and n
rows after the current row.
Example statement:
select *,
max(score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score
rows between 3 preceding and 2 following) as max
from scores
where subject in ('math');
MIN()
Returns the minimum value of the specified rows in the current window.
Syntax:
MIN(expr) [OVER (analytic_clause)]
Examples:
Calculate the lowest score among all rows for the math subject. This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *,
min(score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score
rows between unbounded preceding and unbounded following)
as min
from scores
where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  min 
++++++
 1  lily  math  NULL  70 
 5  mike  math  70  70 
 2  tom  math  80  70 
 4  amy  math  80  70 
 6  amber  math  92  70 
 3  jack  math  95  70 
++++++
From StarRocks 2.4 onwards, you can specify the row range as rows between n preceding and n following
, which means you can capture n
rows before the current row and n
rows after the current row.
Example statement:
select *,
min(score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score
rows between 3 preceding and 2 following) as max
from scores
where subject in ('math');
NTILE()
NTILE() function divides the sorted rows in a partition by the specified number of num_buckets
as equally as possible, stores the divided rows in the respective buckets, starting from 1 [1, 2, ..., num_buckets]
, and returns the bucket number that each row is in.
About the size of the bucket:
 If the row counts can be divided by the specified number of
num_buckets
exactly, all the buckets will be of the same size.  If the row counts cannot be divided by the specified number of
num_buckets
exactly, there will be buckets of two different sizes. The difference between sizes is 1. The buckets with more rows will be listed ahead of the one with fewer rows.
Syntax:
NTILE (num_buckets) OVER (partition_by_clause order_by_clause)
num_buckets
: Number of the buckets to be created. The value must be a constant positive integer whose maximum is 2^63  1
.
Window clause is not allowed in NTILE() function.
NTILE() function returns BIGINT type of data.
Examples:
The following example divides all rows in the partition into two buckets. This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *,
ntile(2)
over (
partition by subject
order by score
) as bucket_id
from scores;
Output:
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  bucket_id 
++++++
 6  amber  NULL  90  1 
 1  lily  math  NULL  1 
 5  mike  math  70  1 
 2  tom  math  80  1 
 4  amy  math  80  2 
 6  amber  math  92  2 
 3  jack  math  95  2 
 3  jack  english  NULL  1 
 5  mike  english  85  1 
 4  amy  english  92  1 
 2  tom  english  98  2 
 1  lily  english  100  2 
 2  tom  physics  NULL  1 
 1  lily  physics  60  1 
 5  mike  physics  85  1 
 3  jack  physics  99  2 
 4  amy  physics  99  2 
 6  amber  physics  100  2 
++++++
As the above example shown, when num_buckets
is 2
:
 For the first row, this partition has only this record and it is assigned to only one bucket.
 For rows 2 to 7, the partition has 6 records and the first 3 records are assigned to bucket 1 and other 3 records are assigned to bucket 2.
RANK()
The RANK() function is used to represent rankings. Unlike DENSE_RANK(), RANK() will appear as a vacant number. For example, if two tied 1s appear, the third number of RANK() will be 3 instead of 2.
Syntax:
RANK() OVER(partition_by_clause order_by_clause)
Examples:
Ranking math scores in the group. This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *,
rank() over(
partition by subject
order by score desc
) as `rank`
from scores where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  rank 
++++++
 3  jack  math  95  1 
 6  amber  math  92  2 
 4  amy  math  80  3 
 2  tom  math  80  3 
 5  mike  math  70  5 
 1  lily  math  NULL  6 
++++++
The result data has two rows whose score is 80. They all rank 3. The rank for the next score 70 is 5.
ROW_NUMBER()
Returns a continuously increasing integer starting from 1 for each row of a Partition. Unlike RANK() and DENSE_RANK(), the value returned by ROW_NUMBER() does not repeat or have gaps and is continuously incremented.
Syntax:
ROW_NUMBER() OVER(partition_by_clause order_by_clause)
Examples:
Rank math scores in the group. This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *, row_number() over(
partition by subject
order by score desc) as `rank`
from scores where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  rank 
++++++
 3  jack  math  95  1 
 6  amber  math  92  2 
 2  tom  math  80  3 
 4  amy  math  80  4 
 5  mike  math  70  5 
 1  lily  math  NULL  6 
++++++
QUALIFY()
The QUALIFY clause filters the results of window functions. In a SELECT statement, you can use the QUALIFY clause to apply conditions to a column to filter results. QUALIFY is analogous to the HAVING clause in aggregate functions. This function is supported from v2.5.
QUALIFY simplifies the writing of SELECT statements.
Before QUALIFY is used, a SELECT statement may go like this:
SELECT *
FROM (SELECT DATE,
PROVINCE_CODE,
TOTAL_SCORE,
ROW_NUMBER() OVER(PARTITION BY PROVINCE_CODE ORDER BY TOTAL_SCORE) AS SCORE_ROWNUMBER
FROM example_table) T1
WHERE T1.SCORE_ROWNUMBER = 1;
After QUALIFY is used, the statement is shortened to:
SELECT DATE, PROVINCE_CODE, TOTAL_SCORE
FROM example_table
QUALIFY ROW_NUMBER() OVER(PARTITION BY PROVINCE_CODE ORDER BY TOTAL_SCORE) = 1;
QUALIFY supports only the following three window functions: ROW_NUMBER(), RANK(), and DENSE_RANK().
Syntax:
SELECT <column_list>
FROM <data_source>
[GROUP BY ...]
[HAVING ...]
QUALIFY <window_function>
[ ... ]
Parameters:
<column_list>
: columns from which you want to obtain data.
<data_source>
: The data source is generally a table.
<window_function>
: The QUALIFY
clause can only be followed by a window function, including ROW_NUMBER(), RANK(), and DENSE_RANK().
Examples:
 Create a table.
CREATE TABLE sales_record (
city_id INT,
item STRING,
sales INT
) DISTRIBUTED BY HASH(`city_id`);
 Insert data into the table.
insert into sales_record values
(1,'fruit',95),
(2,'drinks',70),
(3,'fruit',87),
(4,'drinks',98);
 Query data from the table.
select * from sales_record order by city_id;
++++
 city_id  item  sales 
++++
 1  fruit  95 
 2  drinks  70 
 3  fruit  87 
 4  drinks  98 
++++
Example 1: Obtain records whose row number is greater than 1 from the table.
SELECT city_id, item, sales
FROM sales_record
QUALIFY row_number() OVER (ORDER BY city_id) > 1;
++++
 city_id  item  sales 
++++
 2  drinks  70 
 3  fruit  87 
 4  drinks  98 
++++
Example 2: Obtain records whose row number is 1 from each partition of the table. The table is divided into two partitions by item
and the first row in each partition is returned.
SELECT city_id, item, sales
FROM sales_record
QUALIFY ROW_NUMBER() OVER (PARTITION BY item ORDER BY city_id) = 1
ORDER BY city_id;
++++
 city_id  item  sales 
++++
 1  fruit  95 
 2  drinks  70 
++++
2 rows in set (0.01 sec)
Example 3: Obtain records whose sales rank No.1 from each partition of the table. The table is divided into two partitions by item
and the row with the highest sales in each partition is returned.
SELECT city_id, item, sales
FROM sales_record
QUALIFY RANK() OVER (PARTITION BY item ORDER BY sales DESC) = 1
ORDER BY city_id;
++++
 city_id  item  sales 
++++
 1  fruit  95 
 4  drinks  98 
++++
Usage notes:

QUALIFY supports only the following three window functions: ROW_NUMBER(), RANK(), and DENSE_RANK().

The execution order of clauses in a query with QUALIFY is evaluated in the following order:
 FROM
 WHERE
 GROUP BY
 HAVING
 Window
 QUALIFY
 DISTINCT
 ORDER BY
 LIMIT
SUM()
Calculates the sum of specified rows.
Syntax:
SUM(expr) [OVER (analytic_clause)]
Examples:
Group data by subject
and calculate the sum of scores of all rows within the group. This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *,
sum(score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score
rows between unbounded preceding and unbounded following
) as 'sum'
from scores;
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  sum 
++++++
 6  amber  NULL  90  90 
 1  lily  math  NULL  417 
 5  mike  math  70  417 
 2  tom  math  80  417 
 4  amy  math  80  417 
 6  amber  math  92  417 
 3  jack  math  95  417 
 3  jack  english  NULL  375 
 5  mike  english  85  375 
 4  amy  english  92  375 
 2  tom  english  98  375 
 1  lily  english  100  375 
 2  tom  physics  NULL  443 
 1  lily  physics  60  443 
 5  mike  physics  85  443 
 3  jack  physics  99  443 
 4  amy  physics  99  443 
 6  amber  physics  100  443 
++++++
VARIANCE, VAR_POP, VARIANCE_POP
Returns the population variance of an expression. VAR_POP and VARIANCE_POP are aliases of VARIANCE. These functions can be used as window functions since v2.5.10.
Syntax:
VARIANCE(expr) [OVER (partition_by_clause)]
From 2.5.13, 3.0.7, 3.1.4 onwards, this window function supports the ORDER BY and Window clauses.
Parameters:
If expr
is a table column, it must evaluate to TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT, LARGEINT, FLOAT, DOUBLE, or DECIMAL.
Examples:
This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *, variance(score) over ( partition by subject order by score ) as 'variance' from scores where subject in ('math'); ++++++  id  name  subject  score  variance  ++++++  1  lily  math  NULL  NULL   5  mike  math  70  0   2  tom  math  80  22.222222222222225   4  amy  math  80  22.222222222222225   6  amber  math  92  60.74999999999997   3  jack  math  95  82.23999999999998  ++++++
### VAR_SAMP, VARIANCE_SAMP
Returns the sample variance of an expression. These functions can be used as window functions since v2.5.10.
**Syntax:**
```sql
VAR_SAMP(expr) [OVER (partition_by_clause)]
From 2.5.13, 3.0.7, 3.1.4 onwards, this window function supports the ORDER BY and Window clauses.
Parameters:
If expr
is a table column, it must evaluate to TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT, LARGEINT, FLOAT, DOUBLE, or DECIMAL.
Examples:
This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *,
VAR_SAMP(score)
over (partition by subject
order by score) as VAR_SAMP
from scores where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  VAR_SAMP 
++++++
 1  lily  math  NULL  NULL 
 5  mike  math  70  0 
 2  tom  math  80  33.333333333333336 
 4  amy  math  80  33.333333333333336 
 6  amber  math  92  80.99999999999996 
 3  jack  math  95  102.79999999999997 
++++++
STD, STDDEV, STDDEV_POP
Returns the standard deviation of an expression. These functions can be used as window functions since v2.5.10.
Syntax:
STD(expr) [OVER (partition_by_clause)]
From 2.5.13, 3.0.7, 3.1.4 onwards, this window function supports the ORDER BY and Window clauses.
Parameters:
If expr
is a table column, it must evaluate to TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT, LARGEINT, FLOAT, DOUBLE, or DECIMAL.
Examples:
This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *, STD(score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score) as std
from scores where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  std 
++++++
 1  lily  math  NULL  NULL 
 5  mike  math  70  0 
 4  amy  math  80  4.714045207910317 
 2  tom  math  80  4.714045207910317 
 6  amber  math  92  7.794228634059946 
 3  jack  math  95  9.068627239003707 
++++++
STDDEV_SAMP
Returns the sample standard deviation of an expression. This function can be used as a window function since v2.5.10.
Syntax:
STDDEV_SAMP(expr) [OVER (partition_by_clause)]
From 2.5.13, 3.0.7, 3.1.4 onwards, this window function supports the ORDER BY and Window clauses.
Parameters:
If expr
is a table column, it must evaluate to TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT, LARGEINT, FLOAT, DOUBLE, or DECIMAL.
Examples:
This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *, STDDEV_SAMP(score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score
) as STDDEV_SAMP
from scores where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  STDDEV_SAMP 
++++++
 1  lily  math  NULL  NULL 
 5  mike  math  70  0 
 2  tom  math  80  5.773502691896258 
 4  amy  math  80  5.773502691896258 
 6  amber  math  92  8.999999999999998 
 3  jack  math  95  10.139033484509259 
++++++
select *, STDDEV_SAMP(score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score
rows between unbounded preceding and 1 following) as STDDEV_SAMP
from scores where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  STDDEV_SAMP 
++++++
 1  lily  math  NULL  0 
 5  mike  math  70  7.0710678118654755 
 2  tom  math  80  5.773502691896258 
 4  amy  math  80  8.999999999999998 
 6  amber  math  92  10.139033484509259 
 3  jack  math  95  10.139033484509259 
++++++
COVAR_SAMP
Returns the sample covariance of two expressions. This function is supported from v2.5.10. It is also an aggregate function.
Syntax:
COVAR_SAMP(expr1,expr2) [OVER (partition_by_clause)]
From 2.5.13, 3.0.7, 3.1.4 onwards, this window function supports the ORDER BY and Window clauses.
Parameters:
If expr
is a table column, it must evaluate to TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT, LARGEINT, FLOAT, DOUBLE, or DECIMAL.
Examples:
This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *, COVAR_SAMP(id, score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score) as covar_samp
from scores where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  covar_samp 
++++++
 1  lily  math  NULL  NULL 
 5  mike  math  70  0 
 2  tom  math  80  6.666666666666668 
 4  amy  math  80  6.666666666666668 
 6  amber  math  92  4.5 
 3  jack  math  95  0.24999999999999822 
++++++
select *, COVAR_SAMP(id,score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score
rows between unbounded preceding and 1 following) as COVAR_SAMP
from scores where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  COVAR_SAMP 
++++++
 1  lily  math  NULL  0 
 5  mike  math  70  5 
 4  amy  math  80  6.666666666666661 
 2  tom  math  80  4.500000000000004 
 6  amber  math  92  0.24999999999999467 
 3  jack  math  95  0.24999999999999467 
COVAR_POP
Returns the population covariance of two expressions. This function is supported from v2.5.10. It is also an aggregate function.
Syntax:
COVAR_POP(expr1, expr2) [OVER (partition_by_clause)]
From 2.5.13, 3.0.7, 3.1.4 onwards, this window function supports the ORDER BY and Window clauses.
Parameters:
If expr
is a table column, it must evaluate to TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT, LARGEINT, FLOAT, DOUBLE, or DECIMAL.
Examples:
This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *, COVAR_POP(id, score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score) as covar_pop
from scores where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  covar_pop 
++++++
 1  lily  math  NULL  NULL 
 5  mike  math  70  0 
 2  tom  math  80  4.4444444444444455 
 4  amy  math  80  4.4444444444444455 
 6  amber  math  92  3.375 
 3  jack  math  95  0.19999999999999857 
++++++
CORR
Returns the Pearson correlation coefficient between two expressions. This function is supported from v2.5.10. It is also an aggregate function.
Syntax:
CORR(expr1, expr2) [OVER (partition_by_clause)]
From 2.5.13, 3.0.7, 3.1.4 onwards, this window function supports the ORDER BY and Window clauses.
Parameters:
If expr
is a table column, it must evaluate to TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT, LARGEINT, FLOAT, DOUBLE, or DECIMAL.
Examples:
This example uses the data in the Sample table scores
.
select *, CORR(id, score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score) as corr
from scores where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  corr 
++++++
 5  mike  math  70  0.015594571538795355 
 1  lily  math  NULL  0.015594571538795355 
 2  tom  math  80  0.015594571538795355 
 4  amy  math  80  0.015594571538795355 
 3  jack  math  95  0.015594571538795355 
 6  amber  math  92  0.015594571538795355 
++++++
select *, CORR(id,score)
over (
partition by subject
order by score
rows between unbounded preceding and 1 following) as corr
from scores where subject in ('math');
++++++
 id  name  subject  score  corr 
++++++
 1  lily  math  NULL  1.7976931348623157e+308 
 5  mike  math  70  1 
 2  tom  math  80  0.7559289460184546 
 4  amy  math  80  0.29277002188455997 
 6  amber  math  92  0.015594571538795024 
 3  jack  math  95  0.015594571538795024 
++++++