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BROKER LOAD

Description

StarRocks provides the MySQL-based loading method Broker Load. After you submit a load job, StarRocks asynchronously runs the job. You need to use SHOW LOAD or curl to check the job result. For more information about the background information, prerequisites, principles, supported data file formats, supported external storage systems, and how to perform single-table loads and multi-table loads, see Load data from HDFS or cloud storage.

Before you use Broker Load, make sure that brokers are deployed in your StarRocks cluster. You can use SHOW BROKER to check for brokers that are deployed in your StarRocks cluster. If no brokers are deployed, you must deploy brokers by following the instructions provided in Deploy a broker. In this topic, assume that a group of brokers collectively named 'mybroker' are deployed in your StarRocks cluster.

Syntax

LOAD LABEL [<database_name>.]<label_name>
(
    data_desc[, data_desc ...]
)
WITH BROKER "<broker_name>"
[broker_properties]
[opt_properties]

Note that in StarRocks some literals are used as reserved keywords by the SQL language. Do not directly use these keywords in SQL statements. If you want to use such a keyword in an SQL statement, enclose it in a pair of backticks (`). See Keywords.

Parameters

database_name and label_name

label_name specifies the label of the load job.

database_name optionally specifies the name of the database to which the destination table belongs.

Each load job has a label that is unique across the entire database. You can use the label of a load job to view the execution status of the load job and prevent repeatedly loading the same data. When a load job enters the FINISHED state, its label cannot be reused. Only the label of a load job that has entered the CANCELLED state can be reused. In most cases, the label of a load job is reused to retry that load job and load the same data, thereby implementing Exactly-Once semantics.

For label naming conventions, see System limits.

data_desc

The description of a batch of data to be loaded. Each data_desc descriptor declares information such as the data source, ETL functions, destination StarRocks table, and destination partitions.

Broker Load supports loading multiple data files at a time. In one load job, you can use multiple data_desc descriptors to declare multiple data files you want to load, or use one data_desc descriptor to declare one file path from which you want to load all data files in it. Broker Load can also ensure the transactional atomicity of each load job that is run to load multiple data files. Atomicity means that the loading of multiple data files in one load job must all succeed or fail. It never happens that the loading of some data files succeeds while the loading of the other files fails.

data_desc supports the following syntax:

DATA INFILE ("<file_path>"[, "<file_path>" ...])
[NEGATIVE]INTO TABLE <table_name>
[PARTITION (<partition1_name>[, <partition2_name> ...])]
[TEMPORARY PARTITION (<temporary_partition1_name>[, <temporary_partition2_name> ...])]
[FORMAT AS "CSV | Parquet | ORC"]
[COLUMNS TERMINATED BY "<column_separator>"]
[(column_list)]
[COLUMNS FROM PATH AS (<partition_field_name>[, <partition_field_name> ...])]
[SET <k1=f1(v1)>[, <k2=f2(v2)> ...]]
[WHERE predicate]

data_desc must include the following parameters:

  • file_path

    Specifies the save path of one or more data files you want to load.

    You can specify this parameter as the save path of one data file. For example, you can specify this parameter as "hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/data/tablename/20210411" to load a data file named 20210411 from the path /user/data/tablename on the HDFS server.

    You can also specify this parameter as the save path of multiple data files by using wildcards ?, *, [], {}, or ^. See Wildcard reference. For example, you can specify this parameter as "hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/data/tablename/*/*" or "hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/data/tablename/dt=202104*/*" to load the data files from all partitions or only 202104 partitions in the path /user/data/tablename on the HDFS server.

    NOTE

    Wildcards can also be used to specify intermediate paths.

    In the preceding examples, the hdfs_host and hdfs_port parameters are described as follows:

    • hdfs_host: the IP address of the NameNode host in the HDFS cluster.

    • hdfs_host: the FS port of the NameNode host in the HDFS cluster. The default port number is 9000.

  • INTO TABLE

    Specifies the name of the destination StarRocks table.

data_desc can also optionally include the following parameters:

  • NEGATIVE

    Revokes the loading of a specific batch of data. To achieve this, you need to load the same batch of data with the NEGATIVE keyword specified.

    NOTE

    This parameter is valid only when the StarRocks table uses the Aggregate table and all its value columns are computed by the sum function.

  • PARTITION

    Specifies the partitions into which you want to load data. By default, if you do not specify this parameter, the source data will be loaded into all partitions of the StarRocks table.

  • TEMPORARY_PARTITION

    Specifies the name of the temporary partition into which you want to load data. You can specify multiple temporary partitions, which must be separated by commas (,).

  • FORMAT AS

    Specifies the format of the data file. Valid values: CSV, Parquet, and ORC. By default, if you do not specify this parameter, StarRocks determines the data file format based on the filename extension .csv, .parquet, or .orc specified in the file_path parameter.

  • COLUMNS TERMINATED BY

    Specifies the column separator used in the data file. By default, if you do not specify this parameter, this parameter defaults to \t, indicating tab. The column separator you specify must be the same as the column separator used in the data file. Otherwise, the load job fails due to inadequate data quality, and its State is displayed as CANCELLED.

    Broker Load jobs are submitted according to the MySQL protocol. StarRocks and MySQL both escape characters in the load requests. Therefore, if the column separator is an invisible character such as tab, you must add a backslash () preceding the column separator. For example, you must input \\t if the column separator is \t, and you must input \\n if the column separator is \n. Apache Hive™ files use \x01 as their column separator, so you must input \\x01 if the data file is from Hive.

    NOTE

    • For CSV data, you can use a UTF-8 string, such as a comma (,), tab, or pipe (|), whose length does not exceed 50 bytes as a text delimiter.
    • Null values are denoted by using \N. For example, a data file consists of three columns, and a record from that data file holds data in the first and third columns but no data in the second column. In this situation, you need to use \N in the second column to denote a null value. This means the record must be compiled as a,\N,b instead of a,,b. a,,b denotes that the second column of the record holds an empty string.
  • column_list

    Specifies the column mapping between the data file and the StarRocks table. Syntax: (<column_name>[, <column_name> ...]). The columns declared in column_list are mapped by name onto the StarRocks table columns.

    NOTE

    If the columns of the data file are mapped in sequence onto the columns of the StarRocks table, you do not need to specify column_list.

    If you want to skip a specific column of the data file, you only need to temporarily name that column as different from any of the StarRocks table columns. For more information, see Transform data at loading.

  • COLUMNS FROM PATH AS

    Extracts the information about one or more partition fields from the file path you specify. This parameter is valid only when the file path contains partition fields.

    For example, if the data file is stored in the path /path/col_name=col_value/file1 in which col_name is a partition field and can be mapped onto a column of the StarRocks table, you can specify this parameter as col_name. As such, StarRocks extracts col_value values from the path and loads them into the StarRocks table column onto which col_name is mapped.

    NOTE

    This parameter is available only when you load data from HDFS.

  • SET

    Specifies one or more functions that you want to use to convert a column of the data file. Examples:

    • The StarRocks table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence. The data file consists of four columns, among which the first two columns are mapped in sequence onto col1 and col2 of the StarRocks table and the sum of the last two columns is mapped onto col3 of the StarRocks table. In this case, you need to specify column_list as (col1,col2,tmp_col3,tmp_col4) and specify (col3=tmp_col3+tmp_col4) in the SET clause to implement data conversion.
    • The StarRocks table consists of three columns, which are year, month, and day in sequence. The data file consists of only one column that accommodates date and time values in yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss format. In this case, you need to specify column_list as (tmp_time) and specify (year = year(tmp_time), month=month(tmp_time), day=day(tmp_time)) in the SET clause to implement data conversion.
  • WHERE

    Specifies the conditions based on which you want to filter the source data. StarRocks loads only the source data that meets the filter conditions specified in the WHERE clause.

WITH BROKER

The name of the broker group.

broker_properties

Specifies the information that is used to authenticate the source data. The authentication information varies depending on the data source.

HDFS

Open-source HDFS supports two authentication methods: simple authentication and Kerberos authentication. Broker Load uses simple authentication by default. Open-source HDFS also supports configuring an HA mechanism for the NameNode. If the source data comes from an open-source HDFS cluster, provide the following configurations:

  • Authentication configuration

    • If you use simple authentication, specify the following configuration:

      "hadoop.security.authentication" = "simple"
      "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
      "password" = "<hdfs_password>"

      The following table describes the parameters in the simple authentication configuration.

      ParameterDescription
      usernameThe username of the account that you want to use to access the NameNode of the HDFS cluster.
      passwordThe password of the account that you want to use to access the NameNode of the HDFS cluster.
    • If you use Kerberos authentication, specify the following configuration:

      "hadoop.security.authentication" = "kerberos",
      "kerberos_principal = "nn/zelda1@ZELDA.COM",
      "kerberos_keytab = "/keytab/hive.keytab",
      "kerberos_keytab_content = "YWFhYWFh"

      The following table describes the parameters in the Kerberos authentication configuration.

      ParameterDescription
      kerberos_principalThe Kerberos principal to be authenticated. Each principal consists of the following three parts to ensure that it is unique across the HDFS cluster:
      • username or servicename: The name of the principal.
      • instance: the name of the server that hosts the node to be authenticated in the HDFS cluster. The server name helps ensure that the principal is unique, for example, when the HDFS cluster consists of multiple DataNodes that each are independently authenticated.
      • realm: The name of the realm. The realm name must be capitalized. Example: nn/[zelda1@ZELDA.COM](mailto:zelda1@ZELDA.COM).
      kerberos_keytabThe save path of the Kerberos keytab file, which must be stored on the server in which brokers are deployed.
      kerberos_keytab_contentThe Base64-encoded content of the the Kerberos keytab file. You can choose to specify either kerberos_keytab or kerberos_keytab_content.

      If you use Kerberos authentication, you must open the broker startup script file start_broker.sh and modify line 42 of the file to enable the Broker process to read the krb5.conf file. Example:

      export JAVA_OPTS="-Dlog4j2.formatMsgNoLookups=true -Xmx1024m -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8 -Djava.security.krb5.conf=/etc/krb5.conf"

      NOTE

      In the preceding example, /etc/krb5.conf can be replaced with your actual save path of the krb5.conf file. Make sure that the Broker process has read permissions on that file. If multiple broker groups are deployed, you must modify the start_broker.sh file for each of the broker groups and then restart the nodes that host the broker groups to make the modifications take effect.

  • HA configuration

    You can configure an HA mechanism for the NameNode of the HDFS cluster. This way, if the NameNode is switched over to another node, StarRocks can automatically identify the new node that serves as the NameNode. To enable brokers to read information about the nodes of the HDFS cluster, perform either of the following operations:

    Place the hdfs-site.xml file to the {deploy}/conf path on each node that hosts brokers. As such, StarRocks will add the {deploy_dir}/conf/ path to the environment variable CLASSPATH upon broker startup, allowing brokers to read the HDFS node information.

    Add the following HA configuration at job creation:

    "dfs.nameservices" = "ha_cluster",
    "dfs.ha.namenodes.ha_cluster" = "ha_n1,ha_n2",
    "dfs.namenode.rpc-address.ha_cluster.ha_n1" = "<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>",
    "dfs.namenode.rpc-address.ha_cluster.ha_n2" = "<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>",
    "dfs.client.failover.proxy.provider" = "org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.ha.ConfiguredFailoverProxyProvider"

    The following table describes the parameters in the HA configuration.

    ParameterDescription
    dfs.nameservicesThe name of the HDFS cluster.
    dfs.ha.namenodes.XXXThe name of the NameNode in the HDFS cluster. If you specify multiple NameNode names, separate them with commas (,). xxx is the HDFS cluster name that you have specified in dfs.nameservices.
    dfs.namenode.rpc-address.XXX.NNThe RPC address of the NameNode in the HDFS cluster. NN is the NameNode name that you have specified in dfs.ha.namenodes.XXX.
    dfs.client.failover.proxy.providerThe provider of the NameNode to which the client will connect. Default value: org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.ha.ConfiguredFailoverProxyProvider.

Amazon S3

If the source data is stored in an Amazon S3 bucket, provide the following configurations.

ParameterDescription
fs.s3a.access.keyThe Access Key ID that you can use to access the Amazon S3 bucket.
fs.s3a.secret.keyThe Secret Access Key that you can use to access the Amazon S3 bucket.
fs.s3a.endpointThe endpoint that you can use to access the Amazon S3 bucket.

For more information, see AWS documentation Managing access keys for IAM users.

NOTE

  • Broker Load supports accessing AWS S3 only according to the S3A protocol. Therefore, when you load data from AWS S3, you must replace s3:// in the S3 URI you pass as a file path into DATA INFILE with s3a://.
  • If the IAM role associated with your Amazon EC2 instance is granted permission to access your Amazon S3 bucket, you can leave fs.s3a.access.key and fs.s3a.secret.key unspecified.

Google GCS

If the source data is stored in a Google GCS bucket, provide the following configurations.

ParameterDescription
fs.s3a.access.keyThe Access Key that you can use to access the Google GCS bucket.
fs.s3a.secret.keyThe Secret Key that you can use to access the Google GCS bucket.
fs.s3a.endpointThe endpoint that you can use to access the Google GCS bucket.

NOTE

Broker Load supports accessing Google GCS only according to the S3A protocol. Therefore, when you load data from Google GCS, you must replace the prefix in the GCS URI you pass as a file path into DATA INFILE with s3a://.

To create an Access/Secret key pair to access your Google GCS bucket, follow these steps:

  1. Log in to Google GCP.

  2. In the left-side navigation pane, choose Google Cloud Storage and then Settings.

  3. Click the Interoperability tab.

  4. (Optional.) If you have not enabled the Interoperability feature, click Interoperable Access.

    img

  5. Click the Create new Key button to create an Access/Secret keypair.

opt_properties

Specifies some optional parameters whose settings are applied to the entire load job. Syntax:

PROPERTIES ("<key1>" = "<value1>"[, "<key2>" = "<value2>" ...])

The following parameters are supported:

  • timeout

    Specifies the timeout period of the load job. Unit: second. The default timeout period is 4 hours. We recommend that you specify a timeout period shorter than 6 hours. If the load job does not finish within the timeout period, StarRocks cancels the load job and the status of the load job becomes CANCELLED.

    NOTE

    In most cases, you do not need to set the timeout period. We recommend that you set the timeout period only when the load job cannot finish within the default timeout period.

    Use the following formula to infer the timeout period:

    Timeout period > (Total size of the data files to be loaded x Total number of the data files to be loaded and the materialized views created on the data files)/(Average load speed x Maximum number of concurrent instances allowed per task)

    NOTE

    • "Average load speed" is the average load speed for your entire StarRocks cluster. The average load speed varies for each cluster depending on the server configuration and the maximum number of concurrent query tasks allowed for the cluster. You can infer the average load speed based on the load speeds of historical load jobs.

    • "Maximum number of concurrent instances allowed per task" is specified by the max_broker_concurrency parameter. For more information, see Job splitting and concurrent running.

    Suppose that you want to load a 1-GB data file on which two materialized views are created into a StarRocks cluster whose average load speed is 10 MB/s and maximum number of concurrent instances allowed per task is 3. The amount of time required for the data load is approximately 102 seconds.

    (1 x 1024 x 3)/(10 x 3) = 102 (second)

    For this example, we recommend that you set the timeout period to a value greater than 102 seconds.

  • max_filter_ratio

    Specifies the maximum error tolerance of the load job. The maximum error tolerance is the maximum percentage of rows that can be filtered out as a result of inadequate data quality. Valid values: 0~1. Default value: 0.

    • If you set this parameter to 0, StarRocks does not ignore unqualified rows during loading. As such, if the source data contains unqualified rows, the load job fails. This helps ensure the correctness of the data loaded into StarRocks.

    • If you set this parameter to a value greater than 0, StarRocks can ignore unqualified rows during loading. As such, the load job can succeed even if the source data contains unqualified rows.

      NOTE

      Rows that are filtered out due to inadequate data quality do not include rows that are filtered out by the WHERE clause.

    If the load job fails because the maximum error tolerance is set to 0, you can use SHOW LOAD to view the job result. Then, determine whether unqualified rows can be filtered out. If unqualified rows can be filtered out, calculate the maximum error tolerance based on the values returned for dpp.abnorm.ALL and dpp.norm.ALL in the job result, adjust the maximum error tolerance, and submit the load job again. The formula for calculating the maximum error tolerance is as follows:

    max_filter_ratio = [dpp.abnorm.ALL/(dpp.abnorm.ALL + dpp.norm.ALL)]

    The sum of the values returned for dpp.abnorm.ALL and dpp.norm.ALL is the total number of rows to be loaded.

  • load_mem_limit

    Specifies the maximum amount of memory that can be provided to the load job. Unit: bytes: The default memory limit is 2 GB.

  • strict_mode

    Specifies whether to enable the strict mode. Valid values: true and false. Default value: false. true specifies to enable the strict mode, and false specifies to disable the strict mode.

  • timezone

    Specifies the time zone of the load job. Default value: Asia/Shanghai. The time zone setting affects the results returned by functions such as strftime, alignment_timestamp, and from_unixtime. For more information, see Configure a time zone. The time zone specified in the timezone parameter is a session-level time zone.

Column mapping

If the columns of the data file can be mapped one on one in sequence to the columns of the StarRocks table, you do not need to configure the column mapping between the data file and the StarRocks table.

If the columns of the data file cannot be mapped one on one in sequence to the columns of the StarRocks table, you need to use the columns parameter to configure the column mapping between the data file and the StarRocks table. This includes the following two use cases:

  • Same number of columns but different column sequence. Also, the data from the data file does not need to be computed by functions before it is loaded into the matching StarRocks table columns.

    In the columns parameter, you need to specify the names of the StarRocks table columns in the same sequence as how the data file columns are arranged.

    For example, the StarRocks table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence, and the data file also consists of three columns, which can be mapped to the StarRocks table columns col3, col2, and col1 in sequence. In this case, you need to specify "columns: col3, col2, col1".

  • Different number of columns and different column sequence. Also, the data from the data file needs to be computed by functions before it is loaded into the matching StarRocks table columns.

    In the columns parameter, you need to specify the names of the StarRocks table columns in the same sequence as how the data file columns are arranged and specify the functions you want to use to compute the data. Two examples are as follows:

    • The StarRocks table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence. The data file consists of four columns, among which the first three columns can be mapped in sequence to the StarRocks table columns col1, col2, and col3 and the fourth column cannot be mapped to any of the StarRocks table columns. In this case, you need to temporarily specify a name for the fourth column of the data file, and the temporary name must be different from any of the StarRocks table column names. For example, you can specify "columns: col1, col2, col3, temp", in which the fourth column of the data file is temporarily named temp.
    • The StarRocks table consists of three columns, which are year, month, and day in sequence. The data file consists of only one column that accommodates date and time values in yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss format. In this case, you can specify "columns: col, year = year(col), month=month(col), day=day(col)", in which col is the temporary name of the data file column and the functions year = year(col), month=month(col), and day=day(col) are used to extract data from the data file column col and loads the data into the mapping StarRocks table columns. For example, year = year(col) is used to extract the yyyy data from the data file column col and loads the data into the StarRocks table column year.

For detailed examples, see Configure column mapping.

Examples

This section uses HDFS as an example to describe various load configurations.

Load CSV data

This section uses CSV as an example to explain the various parameter configurations that you can use to meet your diverse load requirements.

Set timeout period

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table1. The table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence.

Your data file example1.csv also consists of three columns, which are mapped in sequence onto col1, col2, and col3 of table1.

If you want to load all data from example1.csv into table1 within up to 3600 seconds, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label1
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/example1.csv")
    INTO TABLE table1
)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
    "password" = "<hdfs_password>"
)
PROPERTIES
(
    "timeout" = "3600"
);

Set maximum error tolerance

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table2. The table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence.

Your data file example2.csv also consists of three columns, which are mapped in sequence onto col1, col2, and col3 of table2.

If you want to load all data from example2.csv into table2 with a maximum error tolerance of 0.1, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label2
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/example2.csv")
    INTO TABLE table2

)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
    "password" = "<hdfs_password>"
)
PROPERTIES
(
    "max_filter_ratio" = "0.1"
);

Load all data files from a file path

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table3. The table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence.

All data files stored in the /user/starrocks/data/input/ path of your HDFS cluster also each consist of three columns, which are mapped in sequence onto col1, col2, and col3 of table3. The column separator used in these data files is \x01.

If you want to load data from all these data files stored in the hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/ path into table3, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label3
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/*")
    INTO TABLE table3
    COLUMNS TERMINATED BY "\\x01"
)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
    "password" = "<hdfs_password>"
);

Set NameNode HA mechanism

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table4. The table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence.

Your data file example4.csv also consists of three columns, which are mapped onto col1, col2, and col3 of table4.

If you want to load all data from example4.csv into table4 with an HA mechanism configured for the NameNode, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label4
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/example4.csv")
    INTO TABLE table4
)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
    "password" = "<hdfs_password>",
    "dfs.nameservices" = "my_ha",
    "dfs.ha.namenodes.my_ha" = "my_namenode1, my_namenode2","dfs.namenode.rpc-address.my_ha.my_namenode1" = "nn1_host:rpc_port",
    "dfs.namenode.rpc-address.my_ha.my_namenode2" = "nn2_host:rpc_port",
    "dfs.client.failover.proxy.provider" = "org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.ha.ConfiguredFailoverProxyProvider"
);

Set Kerberos authentication

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table5. The table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence.

Your data file example5.csv also consists of three columns, which are mapped in sequence onto col1, col2, and col3 of table5.

If you want to load all data from example5.csv into table5 with Kerberos authentication configured and the keytab file path specified, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label5
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/example5.csv")
    INTO TABLE table5
    COLUMNS TERMINATED BY "\t"
)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "hadoop.security.authentication" = "kerberos",
    "kerberos_principal" = "starrocks@YOUR.COM",
    "kerberos_keytab" = "/home/starRocks/starRocks.keytab"
);

Revoke data loading

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table6. The table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence.

Your data file example6.csv also consists of three columns, which are mapped in sequence onto col1, col2, and col3 of table6.

You have loaded all data from example6.csv into table6 by running a Broker Load job.

If you want to revoke the data you have loaded, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label6
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/example6.csv")
    NEGATIVE
    INTO TABLE table6
    COLUMNS TERMINATED BY "\t"
)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "hadoop.security.authentication" = "kerberos",
    "kerberos_principal" = "starrocks@YOUR.COM",
    "kerberos_keytab" = "/home/starRocks/starRocks.keytab"
);

Specify destination partitions

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table7. The table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence.

Your data file example7.csv also consists of three columns, which are mapped in sequence onto col1, col2, and col3 of table7.

If you want to load all data from example7.csv into two partitions, p1 and p2, of table7, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label7
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/example7.csv")
    INTO TABLE table7
    PARTITION (p1, p2)
    COLUMNS TERMINATED BY ","
)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
    "password" = "<hdfs_password>"
);

Configure column mapping

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table8. The table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence.

Your data file example8.csv also consists of three columns, which are mapped in sequence onto col2, col1, and col3 of table8.

If you want to load all data from example8.csv into table8, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label8
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/example8.csv")
    INTO TABLE table8
    COLUMNS TERMINATED BY ","
    (col2, col1, col3)
)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
    "password" = "<hdfs_password>"
);

NOTE

In the preceding example, the columns of example8.csv cannot be mapped onto the columns of table8 in the same sequence as how these columns are arranged in table8. Therefore, you need to use column_list to configure the column mapping between example8.csv and table8.

Set filter conditions

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table9. The table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence.

Your data file example9.csv also consists of three columns, which are mapped in sequence onto col1, col2, and col3 of table9.

If you want to load only the data records whose values in the first column are greater than 20180601 from example9.csv into table9, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label9
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/example9.csv")
    INTO TABLE table9
    (col1, col2, col3)
    where col1 > 20180601
)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
    "password" = "<hdfs_password>"
);

NOTE

In the preceding example, the columns of example9.csv can be mapped onto the columns of table9 in the same sequence as how these columns are arranged in table9, but you need to use the WHERE clause to specify column-based filter conditions. Therefore, you need to use column_list to configure the column mapping between example9.csv and table9.

Load data into tables containing HLL-type columns

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table10. The table consists of four columns, which are id, col1, col2, and col3 in sequence. col1 and col2 are defined as HLL-type columns.

Your data file example10.csv consists of three columns, among which the first column is mapped onto id of table10 and the second and third columns are mapped in sequence onto col1 and col2 of table10. The values in the second and third columns of example10.csv can be converted into HLL-type data by using functions before they are loaded into col1 and col2 of table10.

If you want to load all data from example10.csv into table10, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label10
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/example10.csv")
    INTO TABLE table10
    COLUMNS TERMINATED BY ","
    (id, temp1, temp2)
    SET
    (
        col1 = hll_hash(temp1),
        col2 = hll_hash(temp2),
        col3 = empty_hll()
     )
 )
 WITH BROKER "mybroker"
 (
     "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
     "password" = "<hdfs_password>"
 );

NOTE

In the preceding example, the three columns of example10.csv are named id, temp1, and temp2 in sequence by using column_list. Then, functions are used to convert data as follows:

  • The hll_hash function is used to convert the values in temp1 and temp2 of example10.csv into HLL-type data and map temp1 and temp2 of example10.csv onto col1 and col2 of table10.

  • The hll_empty function is used to fill the specified default value into col3 of table10.

For usage of the functions hll_hash and hll_empty, see hll_hash and hll_empty.

Extract partition field values from file path

Broker Load supports parsing the values of specific partition fields contained in a file path based on the column definitions of the destination StarRocks table. This feature of StarRocks is similar to the Partition Discovery feature of Apache Spark™.

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table11. The table consists of five columns, which are col1, col2, col3, city, and utc_date in sequence.

The file path /user/starrocks/data/input/dir/city=beijing of your HDFS cluster contains the following data files:

  • /user/starrocks/data/input/dir/city=beijing/utc_date=2019-06-26/0000.csv

  • /user/starrocks/data/input/dir/city=beijing/utc_date=2019-06-26/0001.csv

These data files each consist of three columns, which are mapped in sequence onto col1, col2, and col3 of table11.

If you want to load data from all data files from the file path /user/starrocks/data/input/dir/city=beijing/utc_date=*/* into table11 and, at the same time, you want to extract the values of the partition fields city and utc_date contained in the file path and load the extracted values into city and utc_date of table11, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label11
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/dir/city=beijing/*/*")
    INTO TABLE table11
    FORMAT AS "csv"
    (col1, col2, col3)
    COLUMNS FROM PATH AS (city, utc_date)
    SET (uniq_id = md5sum(k1, city))
)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
    "password" = "<hdfs_password>"
);

Extract partition field values from %3A-included file path

In HDFS, file paths cannot contain colons (:). All colons (:) will be converted into %3A.

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table12. The table consists of three columns, which are data_time, col1, and col2 in sequence. The table schema is as follows:

data_time DATETIME,
col1        INT,
col2        INT

The file path /user/starrocks/data of your HDFS cluster contains the following data files:

  • /user/starrocks/data/data_time=2020-02-17 00%3A00%3A00/example12.csv

  • /user/starrocks/data/data_time=2020-02-18 00%3A00%3A00/example12.csv

If you want to load all data from example12.csv into table12 and, at the same time, you want to extract the values of the partition field data_time from the file path and load the extracted values into data_time of table12, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label12
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/*/example12.csv")
    INTO TABLE table12
    COLUMNS TERMINATED BY ","
    FORMAT AS "csv"
    (col1,col2)
    COLUMNS FROM PATH AS (data_time)
    SET (data_time = str_to_date(data_time, '%Y-%m-%d %H%%3A%i%%3A%s'))
)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
    "password" = "<hdfs_password>"
);

NOTE

In the preceding example, the values extracted from the partition field data_time are strings that contain %3A, such as 2020-02-17 00%3A00%3A00. Therefore, you need to use the str_to_date function to convert the strings into DATETIME-type data before they are loaded into data_time of table8.

Load Parquet data

This section describes some parameters settings you need to take note of when you load Parquet data.

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table13. The table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence.

Your data file example13.parquet also consists of three columns, which are mapped in sequence onto col1, col2, and col3 of table13.

If you want to load all data from example13.parquet into table13, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label13
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/example13.parquet")
    INTO TABLE table13
    FORMAT AS "parquet"
    (col1, col2, col3)
)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
    "password" = "<hdfs_password>"
);

NOTE

By default, when you load Parquet data, StarRocks determines the data file format based on whether the filename contains the extension .parquet. If the filename does not contain the extension .parquet, you must use FORMAT AS to specify the data file format as Parquet.

Load ORC data

This section describes some parameters settings you need to take note of when you load ORC data.

Your StarRocks database test_db contains a table named table14. The table consists of three columns, which are col1, col2, and col3 in sequence.

Your data file example14.orc also contains three columns, which are mapped in sequence onto col1, col2, and col3 of table14.

If you want to load all data from example14.orc into table14, run the following command:

LOAD LABEL test_db.label14
(
    DATA INFILE("hdfs://<hdfs_host>:<hdfs_port>/user/starrocks/data/input/example14.orc")
    INTO TABLE table14
    FORMAT AS "orc"
    (col1, col2, col3)
)
WITH BROKER "mybroker"
(
    "username" = "<hdfs_username>",
    "password" = "<hdfs_password>"
);

NOTE

  • By default, when you load ORC data, StarRocks determines the data file format based on whether the filename contains the extension .orc. If the filename does not contain the extension .orc, you must use FORMAT AS to specify the data file format as ORC.

  • In StarRocks v2.3 and earlier, if the data file contains ARRAY-type columns, you must make sure that the columns of the ORC data file have the same names as their mapping columns in the StarRocks table and the columns cannot be specified in the SET clause.