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Version: Candidate-3.3

N-gram bloom filter index

The N-gram bloom filter index is a special Bloom filter index which is typically used to accelerate the LIKE queries and the calculation speed of the ngram_search and ngram_search_case_insensitive functions.

The N-gram bloom filter index is only suitable for string (STRING, CHAR, or VARCHAR) type columns. The difference between the N-gram bloom filter index and Bloom filter index is that the N-gram bloom filter index first tokenizes the strings and then writes the resulting substrings into the Bloom filter index. For example, a certain indexed column value is a string Technical. For a traditional Bloom filter index, the entire string Technical would be directly written into the index. However, for an N-gram bloom filter index with a specified gram_num of 4, the string Technical would be first tokenized into the following substrings:

"Tech", "echn", "chni", "hnic", "nica", "ical"

And then each of these six substrings is written into the Bloom filter index.

Usage notes

  • For a Duplicate Key or Primary Key table, you can create N-gram bloom filter indexes for all the columns (of the string types). For an Aggregate table or Unique Key table, you can only create N-gram bloom filter indexes on the key columns (of the string types).
  • N-gram bloom filter indexes can only be created for columns of the string types (CHAR, STRING, and VARCHAR).
  • To determine whether a query hits an N-gram bloom filter index, you can check the BloomFilterFilterRows field in the query's profile.
  • Only one type of index (Bloom Filter or N-gram Bloom Filter) can be created for a single column.

Basic operation

Create N-gram bloom filter index

CREATE TABLE test.table1
(
k1 CHAR(10),
k2 CHAR(10),
v1 INT SUM,
INDEX index_name (k2) USING NGRAMBF ("gram_num" = "4",
"bloom_filter_fpp" = "0.05") COMMENT ''
)
ENGINE = olap
AGGREGATE KEY(k1, k2)
DISTRIBUTED BY HASH(k1);

N-gram bloom filter index-related parameters:

ParameterRequiredDescription
index_nameYesThe name of the index. Index names must be unique within a table.
column_nameYesThe name of the column for which the index is created. Only a single column name can be specified. In the example above, it is k2.
gram_numYesThe length of a substring after the string in the indexed column is tokenized. In the example above, gram_num is 4.
bloom_filter_fppNoThe false positive possibility of the Bloom filter, ranging from 0.0001 to 0.05. The default value is 0.05. A smaller value provides better filtering but incurs greater storage overhead.
case_sensitiveNoWhether this index is case-sensitive or not. Default value is case_sensitive.
COMMENTNoIndex comment.

For explanations of other parameters related to table creation, see CREATE TABLE.

View N-gram bloom filter index

You can view all indexes of a table using SHOW CREATE TABLE or SHOW INDEX FROM table. Since index creation is asynchronous, you can only see the corresponding index after the index is successfully created.

SHOW CREATE TABLE table1;
SHOW INDEX FROM table1;

Modify N-gram bloom filter index

You can add and delete the N-gram bloom filter index by using the ALTER TABLE statement.

  • Execute the following statement to add a new N-gram bloom filter index new_index_name for the column k1 to the table table1.

    ALTER TABLE table1 
    ADD INDEX new_index_name(k1) USING NGRAMBF ("gram_num" = "4",
    "bloom_filter_fpp" = "0.05") COMMENT '';
  • Execute the following statement to remove the N-gram bloom filter index new_index_name from the table table1.

ALTER TABLE table1 DROP INDEX new_index_name;
note

Altering an index is an asynchronous operation. You can view the progress of this operation by executing SHOW ALTER TABLE. You can run only one task to alter the index in a table each time.

Query that can be accelerated

LIKE queries

An N-gram bloom filter index can accelerate LIKE queries if gram_num is small enough (smaller than the length of the string being queried for). Otherwise, the N-gram bloom filter index can not accelerate LIKE queries.

For example, if gram_num is 4, and the query statement is SELECT * FROM table WHERE col1 LIKE "%abc", the N-Gram Bloom filter index will not accelerate this query, because the queried string is abc, which has only three characters, less than the value 4 of gram_num. If the query condition is WHERE col1 LIKE "%abcd" or WHERE col1 LIKE "%abcde%", the N-Gram Bloom filter index will accelerate the query.

When the ngram_search function is used in the query, if the column specified in the function has an N-gram bloom filter index and the gram_num specified in the function matches the gram_num of the N-gram bloom filter index, the index will automatically filter out data with a string similarity of 0, significantly speeding up the function execution process.

ngram_search_case_insensitive

The usage of this function is the same as ngram_search, except that this function is case-sensitive. So it requires case_sensitive to be false when the N-gram bloom filter index is created.

CREATE TABLE test.table1
(
k1 CHAR(10),
k2 CHAR(10),
v1 INT SUM,
INDEX index_name (k2) USING NGRAMBF ("gram_num" = "4",
"bloom_filter_fpp" = "0.05",
"case_sensitive" = "false") COMMENT ''
)
ENGINE = olap
AGGREGATE KEY(k1, k2)
DISTRIBUTED BY HASH(k1);

If the index is already created and its parameter case_sensitive is set to be true, you can alter the parameter of this index to false by using:

ALTER TABLE table1 
ADD INDEX new_index_name(k1) USING NGRAMBF ("gram_num" = "4",
"bloom_filter_fpp" = "0.05",
"case_sensitive" = "false") COMMENT '';